Technical Papers

As an industry leader focused on sustainable specialty chemicals and innovation, our continual R&D endeavours and active participation as an industry expert remains a cornerstone for our ability to spur positive change. Below are a selection of technical papers and reports published by our team.

Polymeric flame retardants for reinforced thermoplastic and thermoset resins

Polyphosphonates and phosphonate oligomers are a group of flame retardants that have gained much attention in recent years. Produced under the brand name Nofia,1 they are now commercially used to flame retard different resins such as polyesters, polycarbonate, polyurethanes, epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, and polyureas. Phosphonates can be used as the single flame retardant but recently, it was also shown, that phosphonates can support other non-halogenated and halogenated flame retardants. FRX Polymers has been screening many systems including replacement of antimony trioxide as the synergist in flame retardant formulations that are based on halogenated flame retardants. The present article discusses examples of the use of phosphonates in reinforced thermoplastic and thermoset applications.


Development of Halogen Free, Low Loss Copper-Clad Laminates Containing a Novel Phosphonate Oligomer

With the rapid development of the information industry, increasing attention is being paid to the dielectric performance of base materials including copper-clad laminates (CCL) and prepregs.  In addition to the increasingly high performance requirements of CCL’s, the present global attention to less toxic products is leading to an increase in the use of halogen-free flame retardants in electronics.  The significance of this paper is not only to introduce a new halogen-free, mid-TG, low loss CCL, but also to highlight a novel kind of halogen free reactive flame retardant for CCL.

Novel Polymeric, Nonhalogenated Flame Retardants For Use In Thermoplastic Elastomers

Polyphosphonates are a versatile addition to the continuously growing spectrum of FR additives. Optimizing these additives can offer balanced flame-retardant performance, mechanical properties, costs and other desired properties.

Demand for non-halogenated flame retardants in wire and cable applications has been increasing considerably in recent years due to regulation and environmental and health concerns of halogen-based flame retardants. Non-halogenated phosphorus, inorganic and nitrogen flame retardants are increasingly being used as the more environmentally friendly alternatives

Novel polymeric, non-halogenated flame retardants

Flame retardancy is a legal requirement for many plastics used in electrical equipment, consumer electronics, building and construction, textile and transportation applications.  Yet, over 60% of all FR plastic formulations are still based on halogen-containing FR additives, even though these materials have some sever, undesirable side effects.  The result, EU legislation bans the use of certain families of brominated FRs and the US EPA’s Design for the Environment Alternatives assessment for decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE) and  hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). 


To address the issues of the persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogenated FRs, FRX Polymers developed Nofia FRs, a series of non-halogenated, non-migrating flame retardant additives of low concern to human health and the environment.